Abusing painkillers is a big problem in the U.S. – about 12 million people said they used painkillers for non-medical reasons in the past year, according to recent CDC estimates.
5 signs someone you love might be abusing prescription painkillers and how to help:
1. Drowsiness, lack of energy
One potential sign a person may be addicted to opioids is that he or she looks tired, and that drowsiness causes the person to spend less time with old friends and skip out on activities.
Tirado says during the peak effect of using opioids, a drug-taker might appear drowsy with drooping eyes or may look about to fall asleep.
While this may be mistaken for ‘just being tired,’ individuals may demonstrate this pattern at various times throughout the day.
2. Inability to concentrate, lack of motivation
One potential sign a person may be addicted to opioids is that he or she looks tired, and that drowsiness causes the person to spend less time with old friends and skip out on activities. Tirado says during the peak effect of using opioids, a drug-taker might appear drowsy with drooping eyes or may look about to fall asleep. “While this may be mistaken for ‘just being tired,’ individuals may demonstrate this pattern at various times throughout the day,” Tirado says.
3. Social behavioral changes
Due to the frequent level of intoxication, the drowsiness, tiredness and inability to concentrate often make it difficult for the addicted individual to maintain normal friendships and healthy lifestyle habits like sports, social clubs and hobbies. People addicted to painkillers swap friendships and healthy “pro-social” activities in favor of becoming more isolated and/or spending time with friends who are engaged in similar destructive behaviors.
4. Changes in appearance
According to Tirado it can be difficult to tell when someone is high on opioids, but the most common physical signs include “pinpoint pupils” (pupils that stay constricted, even in dim room light); sudden itching of the arms, stomach or legs; drooping eyes; flushing of the face and neck; head nodding; intense calm; and slurred speech.
When a person is experiencing painkiller withdrawal, they may show frequent yawning, runny nose, dilated pupils, sudden trips to the bathroom (nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), joint pain (especially in the back and legs), “flu-like” feelings, and severe insomnia.
5. Increased secrecy
“The need for secrecy and leading a double life is a basic requirement for the development of a chronic prescription opioid addiction,” says Dr. Tirado. He says the vast majority of prescription opioids that are abused in the U.S. originate from legitimate prescriptions that are sold for cash or traded for other drugs on the black market.
Since this type of activity is by definition illegal and high-risk, individuals must “fly under the radar” and maintain a level of secrecy by using slang terms and strictly guarding privacy. Tirado encourage parents’ families to learn common slang terms such as “oxys” (oxycodone) or “hydros” (hydrocodone), and to watch for red flags such as an unwillingness to allow parental interaction with friends.
How to help
Tirado said it’s important to keep in mind that people who suffer from opioid dependence often face barriers that can make beginning treatment seem like a daunting task. Some of the most common barriers include a fear of suffering from cravings or withdrawal, the stigma associated with addiction, lack of knowledge about available treatments, and simply being too embarrassed to ask for help.
Office-based treatment with FDA approved medications is an excellent option for patients addicted to opioids who can see a doctor regularly, says Dr. Tirado. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, such treatments include methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone – both in pill form or long-acting injection. In addition to in-office management, intensive outpatient (IOP) programs, individual chemical dependency counseling and residential programs are the most common forms of treatment available for people with an addiction.
If you or someone you know is dependent on prescription painkillers, you are not alone. Visit The Partnership at Drugfree.org for resources on where to find help.